Important Theological Terms

Here is 3 and 1/4 pages of theological terms that appear in Paul’s letter to the Roman Church. Very important to grasp what these words mean.

Baptism (Grk. baptizein, “to dip in water”) Initiation into the Christian faith through a worship ceremony in which water is applied by sprinkling (aspersion), pouring (affusion), or immersion while the Trinitarian formula is spoken. Regarded as a sacrament (an outward sign instituted by God to convey an inward or spiritual grace) by most liturgical churches, especially Roman Catholicism. “Believer’s Baptism” is baptism administered only to those who make a conscious profession of Christian faith and who have reached an age of accountability (adulthood). The practice is found in Baptist and other traditions and is considered an “ordinance” (a memorial or act of obedience). 

Romans 6:3, 4 

Blessing: A particular goodness received or given. Liturgically, it is an expression of God’s graciousness and love. 

Romans 4:6, 9; 15:29 

Comforter: (KJV) or Helper (ESV) (Grk. = paraclete, “called to the side of,” “advocate”). Reference to the Holy Spirit, especially in portions of John’s gospel (chaps. 14–16) 

Not found in Romans 

Condemnation: See also Guilt and Judgment. In general, Condemnation means Divine judgment against sin. It does not mean “damnation,” as was often the translation in the King James Version of the Bible. 

Romans 3:8; 5:16, 18; 8:1 

Divine Forbearance: (Grk. anoche, “a holding back”) Patience and self-restraint as a quality of God that should mark the lives of Christians as well (see also Eph. 4:2; Col. 3:13). 

Romans 2:4; 3:25 

Eternal Life: Present participation in God’s reign and in the benefits of salvation through faith in Jesus Christ by the work of the Holy Spirit (John 3:16). After death, it is consummated by life in heaven in God’s presence, which lasts forever. (Also “everlasting life.”) 

Romans 2:7; 5:21; 6:22, 23 

Faith (Grk. pistis, Lat. fides, “trust,” “belief”) In Christianity, belief, trust, and obedience to God as revealed in Jesus Christ. It is the means of salvation (Eph. 2:8–9) or eternal life (John 6:40). Faith affets all dimensions of one’s existence: intellect, emotions, and will. 

Romans 1:5, 8, 12, 17; 3:22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31; 4:5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 22; 5:1, 2; 9:30, 32; 10:6, 8, 17; 11:20; 12:3, 6: 14:1, 22, 23; 16:26 

Fear of God (the LORD): “Servile fear” of God is based on the treat of divine punishment. “Filial fear” recognizes God’s person as one who is righteous and thus the awe and 2 

reverence which evokes the desire not to offend God. Biblically, “fear” (Heb. yir’ah) means “awe” (Prov. 9:10). 

Romans 3:18; 11:20; 13:3 

Glory: (Lat. gloria) Exalted praise and honor. Glory is an attribute of God. Where God is present is His glory. 

Grace: (Grk. charis, Lat. gratia, “favor,” “kindness”): Unmerited favor. God’s grace is extended to sinful humanity in providing salvation and forgiveness through Jesus Christ that is not deserved and withholding the judgment that is deserved (Rom. 3:24; Eph. 1:7; Titus 2:11). 

Guilt: The condition in which one is estranged from God because of sin, which ruptures the divine-human relationship. The experience of guilt that results from breaking a divine law can be accompanied by a sense of shame. 

Heirs: Under the patriarchs the property of a father was divided among the sons of his legitimate wives ( Genesis 21:10; 24:36; 25:5), the eldest son getting a larger portion than the rest. The Mosaic law made specific regulations regarding the transmission of real property, which are given in detail in Deut. 21:17; Num. 27:8; 36:6; 27:9-11. Succession to property was a matter of right and not of favor. Christ is the “heir of all things” ( Heb. 1:2; Col. 1:15). Believers are heirs of the “promise,” “of righteousness,” “of the kingdom,” “of the world,” “of God,” “joint heirs” with Christ (Gal. 3:29; Heb. 6:17; 11:7 ; James 2:5). Ones who receive an inheritance. Used in the Old Testament to designate Israel’s reception of the promised land (Num. 34:2; Deut. 26:1; Ps. 105:11), and in the New Testament for reception of the kingdom of God given to those who are Christian believers (Matt. 25:34; Gal. 5:21; Heb. 1:14). 

Romans 4:13, 14; 8:17 

Holy Spirit (or Spirit of God): (Heb. ruach; Grk. pneuma, “spirit”) The third member of the Trinity. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit constitute the eternal Godhead. The Spirit inspired biblical writers, makes known the saving work of Jesus Christ, and is God as present in and with the Church. The Spirit acts to incorporate all things into the life of the triune God. 

Romans 5:5; 8:9; 14, 9:1; 14:17; 15:13, 16, 19 

Hope, Christian: The Christian anticipation of the future as the fulfillment of God’s purposes based on God’s covenant faithfulness and the resurrection of Jesus Christ as known by the work of the Holy Spirit in the church. (See also Matt. 12:21; Acts 2:26; 23:6; 24:15; 26:6, 7; 28:20; 1 Pet. 1:3; 

Romans 4:18, 5:2–5; 8:20–25; 12:12; 15:4, 12, 13, 24 

Judgment: The evaluation of one’s guilt or innocence. It is associated in Scriptures with God’s assessments of nations and people. (See also “Condemnation”) 

Romans 2:1–5; 5:16; 12:3; 13:2; 14:3, 4, 10, 13, 22 3 

The Law: Refers to the moral law given by God to Moses to regulate the conduct of the covenant people, as found throughout the Pentateuch. 

Romans 2:12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, 23, 25, 26; 3:19, 20, 21, 27, 28, 31; 4:13–16; 5:13, 20; 6:14, 15; 7:1–9, 12, 14, 16, 21, 22, 23, 25; 8:2–4, 7, 9:4, 31; 10:4, 5; 13:8, 10 

Immortality: The condition of not being mortal and, thus, of being deathless, undying, or everlasting. Only God is inherently immortal. In Christian theology, those who receive eternal life, and thus immortality, receive it as a gift of God. 

Romans 1:23, 2:7 

Peace: (Heb. shalom, Grk. eirene) Fullness, well-being. Translation os shalom, Hebrew term used for both greeting and farewell with great richness of meaning. It is much more than lack of war and points to full societal and personal well-being, coupled with righteousness and possible only as a gift of God. 

Romans 1:7; 2:10; 3:17; 5:1; 8:6; 14:17, 19; 15:13, 33; 16:20 

Propitiation: A theological term for making atonement for sin by making an acceptable sacrifice. Some English translations use the term (Rom. 3:25; Heb. 2:17; 1 John 2:2; 4:10) to describe the death of Christ. Some theories of the atonement relate this to God’s wrath. 

Romans 3:25 

Reconciliation/Reconciled: (Grk. katallage, “a bringing together again”) Bringing together parties who are estranged. It is a key image of the salvation accomplished by Jesus Christ in death and resurrection (2 Cor. 5:16–21). Christians are to be reconciled with God and with others (Matt. 5:23–24). 

Romans 5:10, 11; 11:15 

Resurrection: God’s raising of Jesus Christ from the dead (Acts 2:32; 4:10; Gal. 1:1). Also, the future rising of all persons prior to the final judgment (John 5:25–29; 1 Cor. 15; Rev. 20:4–15). 

Romans 1:4; 6:5 

Righteousness: (Heb. sedaqah, Grk. dikaiosyne). Biblically the term embraces a number of dimensions relating to God’s actions in establishing and maintaining right relationships. Ethically it is a state of moral purity or doing that which is right (Pss. 96:13; 97:6; 106:3) 

Salvation: (Grk. soterian) God’s activities in bringing humans into a right relationship with God and with one another through Jesus Christ. They are saved from the consequences of their sin and given eternal life. 

Romans 1:16; 11:11; 13:11 

Sin: Various Hebrew and Greek words are translated “sin” with many shades of meaning. Theologically, sin is the human condition of separation from God that arises from opposition to God’s purposes. It may be breaking God’s law, failing to do what God will, or rebellion It needs forgiveness by God. 4 

Romans 3:9, 20; 4:8; 5:12, 13, 16, 20, 21; 6:1-2, 6–23; 7:7–9, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 25; 8:2, 3, 10; 14:23 

Transgression: (from Grk. parabainein) A biblical image for sin as overstepping the boundaries set by God, and thus as the breaking of God’s law (Ex. 34L7; Ps. 32:1; Gal 6:1). 

Romans 4:15; 5:14 

Wrath of God: An expression of the righteousness of God in relation to human sin and its just punishment (Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6). Also called “anger” in the Scriptures (Ex. 4:14; Deut. 29:23). 

Romans 1:18; 2:5; 2:8; 3:5; 4:15; 5:9; 9:22; 12:19; 13:4; 13:5 

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