Islamic Mysticism

Chapter 25 from Pathways to Darkness

In Ayman S. Ibrahim’s A Concise Guide to the Life of Muhammad (published by Baker Academic in 2022) is a chapter titled, “Was Muhammad a Real Historical Figure?” Here he mentions three Muhammads: The Muhammad in popular and cultural Islam, then a second, Muhammad in the Muslim traditions, and finally the Muhammad of history. We will focus only on the first of these, the Muhammad in popular and cultural Islam, otherwise known as “the legendary Muhammad.”

The Quran presents Muhammad as an ordinary man who looked to Allah for mercy and help, but not the legendary Muhammad, this popular Muhammad, who was highly venerated even to the point where he was worshipped. It is thought here that he possessed divine qualities and could influence daily lives, even perform signs and wonders, that he knew the future, could raise the dead, and heal the sick. It was believed that he could visit sick people in dreams, especially if they drank holy water or recited verses from the Quran.

In other words, Muhammad was believed to have metaphysical or mystical abilities, and so Muslims like to visit holy places, shrines, and graves, associated with him, and they do so to obtain power, blessings, and protection from evil. And such activities are condemned by mainline Muslim theologians, but still these are popular with large segments of the Muslim population around the world. These will look to Muhammad to interpret dreams, receive divine visitations, and tell their future. 

Again, this is the legendary Muhammad and not the Muhammad of the Quran. 

The reason for the inclusion of this chapter on Islamic mysticism will be plain from the following, “Summary of the Exorcist Tradition in Islam.”

Summary of The Exorcist Tradition in Islam

Kent’s personal introduction: While attending the Mill Valley Islamic Center’s Mosque in January of 2016, I noticed a book on a shelf in the foyer, and during the prayer time I skimmed through this book by Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips.1 

1 Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, The Exorcist Tradition in Islam (Birmingham, England, UK: Al-Hidaayah Publishing & Distribution Ltd., 2007). I was stunned and had to read it. The Imam Abdullah allowed me to take it home on the promise to return it the next Friday. I bought a copy online, read every word, and began to prepare this for a section of Islamic Studies.

The Exorcist Tradition in Islam (hereafter, Exorcist Tradition) confirmed so much I already knew about “folk” Islam. Here, however, information I thought relevant to only rural Muslim folk was actually mainstream for Muslims everywhere. It also confirmed what I already knew and had written about over the years, including my first published book by Zondervan Publishing House in 1973, entitled A Manual of Demonology and the Occult. During the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, I actively and extensively engaged in what Dr. Philips refers to as exorcism but which I call deliverance ministry, as in the Lord’s Prayer, “deliver us from evil” (see Matthew 6:13). Then, in more recent times, I wrote Deliver us from Evil: How Jesus Casts out Demons Today, published by Earthen Vessel Publishing in 2015. 

When I returned Dr. Philips book, I also gave the Imam a copy of the new book mentioned above, which he gladly received and in which he eagerly expressed interest. It seemed necessary to me then to prepare this present chapter to assist those who might deal with this subject in their outreach to Muslims. 

Notes on the introduction to The Exorcist Tradition in Islam 

Dr. Philips gives the following reason for the writing of his book: 

In the last ten years, an upsurge of interest among Muslims about possession and the spirit-world has led to the republication of most of the classical texts on this subject (p. 7). 

He also says there has been a growing number of exorcists among Muslims. This interest then is the prime reason for Dr. Philips’ book, and his work is based upon sources that are accepted by Muslim scholars as being authentic and reliable. 

Chapter One is “The Spirit World,” where the focus is on three areas: the human spirit, jinn, and angels. Chapter Two is: “Spirit Possession,” in which he discusses the reasons for possession, partial possession, magic, the Evil Eye, exorcism, the validity of the need for exorcism, the exorcist, and methods of exorcism. Chapter Three is “Modern Muslim Exorcists.” A questionnaire developed by Dr. Philips was presented to Muslim exorcists, the results of which are presented along with a profile of the 20th century Muslim exorcist and a survey of Christian exorcists. Chapter Four is the author’s opinions about exorcism. There is an appendix that consists of interviews with seventeen exorcists, followed by an index of Qur’anic verses and hadith dealing with the subject, and concluding with a bibliography. Following now is commentary on these chapters. 

Chapter One: “The Spirit World” 

In Islam there are three different categories or species of created entities: human souls, angels, and jinn, all of which are considered rational yet invisible beings. Humans have bodies that are inhabited by human spirits or souls. Both the terms ruh and nafs are used in reference to the human spirit or soul. In this section we will use the word “soul” for the human spirit. 


Sunni Muslims believe the soul dies at death, based on Qur’an 3:185; 28:88; and 40:11. 

When a person dies, there is some disagreement among Islamic scholars about what happens to the human spirit or soul between death and the Day of Resurrection. A dominant idea is that they return to the barzakh, the place from which they originally came. It is from the barzakh that souls are “blown by angels into the human embryos” (p. 21).2 

2 Barzakh is a Persian word that means separation, that is, a spiritual state in which souls wait before being blown into humans while in the womb.

Upon death the souls of the prophets await the Day of Resurrection in the highest level of paradise, the seventh heaven. This is a lesser place than that of the martyrs, whose souls change into green birds in paradise (Abu Dawud, page 455, no. 3). In this hadith, it is also said that if the martyr leaves behind unpaid debt, he or she will not enter paradise. 

The souls of the ordinary believer will not enter the bodies of green birds in paradise; they will, however, exist in the form of birds but are not allowed to roam around in paradise, unlike those of the martyrs. 

The souls of disobedient believers are held in their graves and punished for their sins. Two kinds of disobedient believers are mentioned by Muhammad as recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 141, no. 215 and by Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pp. 171–172, no. 575: “Surely, they are being punished right now, and not for major offences. One of them was not careful to protect himself from the splash of his urine, and the other used to spread rumors.” 

The souls of disbelievers sorrow greatly. These souls remain in the grave and are punished until the Day of Resurrection. Souls of believers have contact with each other just before they die, and the souls already having died inquire as to the lot and fare of acquaintances yet living. 

Some Muslim esoterics, called Batini, believe that perfect souls leave their human bodies and educate living Muslims in order to improve their souls. 


Although angels take the form of males, as in Gabriel who appeared to Muhammad, they are considered to be neuter with no actual sexual gender. 

Names are given to some angels in Islam: Jibril or Gabriel is the angel of revelation (Qur’an 26:192–193);3 

3 Where no citation is given, the authority comes from multiple hadith.

Mikail or Michael is responsible for rain; Israfil is the angel who will blow the horn at the time of the end of the world; Malik is the name of the guardian angel of hell (Qur’an 43:77) who lights hellfire and makes sure no one escapes; Munkar and Nakir are the two angels who will determine, after a person is dead, whether he or she was a faithful Muslim; Harut and Marut were angels who were sent to the people of Babylon to determine if they had real faith or not (Qur’an 2:102); and Raqib and ‘Atid are the two angels who sit on the shoulder of each Muslim recording their good and bad deeds (Qur’an 50:17–18). The following passages in the Qur’an speak of recording angels who are not named: 82:10–11 and 50:17–18. 

Angels have authority over the heavens and the earth. Angels determine or set in motion all that happens (Qur’an 79:5 and 51:4), yet they are merely servants of Allah. Angels are able to travel at incredible speeds. 

Some angels are able to read the minds of humans, and some know the acts that were planned by people but never carried out. Angels are in constant contact with humans, from birth to death and after death. Angels are assigned to each person at the moment of conception. They inspire people to do good and guard them from doing evil (Qur’an 13:11). There are also angels who pray to Allah for people about certain matters. 

One thing angels do not do is possess humans as jinn do, nor do they incite people to do evil. 


Jinn are hidden from human sight. The Arabic word for jinn is janna and means that which is concealed or hidden. Jinn is the plural form and jinni is the singular form. 

The belief in jinn is shared with Jews and Christians, but most modern day Jews, as well as some Christians, disavow the existence of jinn or demons. 

Jinn originate from fire (Qur’an 15:27; 55:15) and were created before humans existed (Qur’an 15:26–27). Since jinn are created beings, they also experience death (Qur’an 28:88; 55:26; 46:18). 

Satan, or Shaytan, is close to the concept of devil or demon. There are those who say Satan was not an angel but only a jinn; however there are those who disagree and believe Iblis, which is the personal name of Satan, was among the angels, but he refused to bow down to Adam and thus became a demon or even the devil (Qur’an 7:11 and also Qur’an 26:75–78). 

Though jinn are invisible to humans, some animals can see them. Some believe that certain jinn, like the angels, can assume human shapes and forms. Some jinn take animal shapes on a constant basis. 

(Note: Here is a connection with “spirit animals” common to Shamanism and neo-pagan groups like Wicca.) 

There are three different kinds of jinn. One type flies in the air all of the time; others take the form of dogs and snakes; and others wander the earth. These latter jinn are referred to as qarin, which means companion, and they will accompany a person from their birth to their death. 

There are jinn who listen in on the conversations of angels, who inhabit a lower level of heaven, and then report their findings to fortunetellers (Qur’an 72:8–9; 15:17–18). 

Jinn can be Muslims or non-Muslims. One treats a Muslim jinn differently, almost reverently, but not so a non-Muslim jinn. Satan is a non-Muslim devil. 

Some Muslim scholars contend, and are supported by some hadith, that camels are jinn or are created from jinn. 

Some hadith say that jinn eat and drink and do so with the left hand. 

Some, mostly Sunni scholars, teach that jinn can have sexual relations with humans and may have offspring, based on Qur’an 72:6. There are hadith that report that Muhammad habitually said when entering the toilet, “O Allah, surely I seek refuge in You from evil male and female jinn.” This particular saying was collected from all six of the major hadith, i.e., Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 1, pp. 105–106, no. 144 and Sahih Muslim, vol. p. 205, no. 729. In addition, Qur’an 55:74 and 18:50 indicate that jinn deflower females. 

Hinn are the lowest category of jinn and appear as black dogs. 

Jinn, like angels, are able to travel large distances very rapidly. They are also able to affect the human mind by implanting evil thoughts. Some jinn sleep and eat with humans without the humans being aware of it. Jinn may cause humans to be ill. 

At a person’s death, even a Muslim, jinn will attempt to cause him or her to go astray and leave the straight path of Allah. 

Jinn are the only possible source of possession of a human being; human spirits or souls or angels do not possess humans. Jinn can cause both physical and mental problems.

Chapter Two: “Spirit Possession” 

Sar is the most commonly used term for possession by jinn, and only jinn can possess a human being. This word is also used to denote epilepsy and literally means, “to throw down.” Mass is also a term used to refer to spirit possession but is also used to describe mental illness or madness. A possessed person is called a mansus. An insane person is called a majnun

Not all Muslim scholars hold to the idea that jinn possess people; some are more likely to see marks of possession as mental or physical illness; major Islamic scholars, however, do attest to spirit possession. In fact, it is said that if one denies spirit possession of human beings it is akin to apostasy and a denial of the Qur’an. 

Qur’anic evidence for spirit possession is found in Qur’an 2:275: “Those who devour interest rise up like one stumbling from Satan’s touch.” The hadith are used to substantiate this as well, several of which have wording like, “Verily, Satan flows in the bloodstream of Adam’s descendants” (Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, pp. 1187–1188). In addition, Qur’an 14:22 suggests the possibility of spirit possession, but such is not absolutely clear from the passage itself. 

The Sunnah, the pattern of truth found in hadith, support spirit possession by jinn, and not only the possibility of such but also its reality. 

Spirit possession occurs from lack of faith in Allah, not performing prayers, lustful inclinations of jinn, or horseplay. Major trouble may occur if jinn become angry. The example given by Dr. Philips is interesting: a person accidentally splattering urine on or pouring hot water on the unseen jinn will make the jinn angry, who in retaliation may possess the offender. In general, jinn tend to be harsh, ignorant, and volatile. 

Jinn fool mediums into thinking that they, the medium, can call up spirits of the dead, who even impersonate deceased ancestors, often using unknown languages that no one can understand. 

Objects, animate or inanimate, may also be possessed, as Jinn can dwell in both. One example is that rats, which are possessed by jinn, force the necessity of putting out a candle’s flame at night less the rat use it to burn a person (see Qur’an 7:148 and 20:86–89). 

Jinn may also appear in visions, while a person is awake or asleep, in order to lead the faithful Muslim astray. 

Sihr is Arabic for magic and refers to whatever is caused by hidden forces. It can also refer to speech that is subtle and strange, and Muhammad is reported to have said, “Some forms of speech are magic” (Sahih al-Bukhari, vo. 7, p. 445, no. 662). 

In Sharia Law, magic is defined as “a contract or incantation, spoken or written, or something done which will affect the body, heart or mind of the one bewitched without actually coming in contact with him.” It is said that Allah may allow such magical deception to occur. 

Islamic scholars generally disavow the use of amulets and charms meant to ward off evil jinn, curses, and in order to achieve good fortune. There is a division amongst Muslim scholars as to the reality of magic, yet it is widely practiced, since in the Qur’an and the Sunnah magical practices are mentioned. Evidence of this is found in Qur’an 2:102; 113:4; and 7:116. Qur’an 113:4 reads, “And (I seek refuge) from the evil of the witches who blow on knots.” The blowing on knots, rope, or animal hair was a mechanism by which spells were cast. 

The Qur’anic verses 7:117 and 20:66 also refer to the reality of magical practices. Magic works through the power of jinn and Satan directly. It is evident then that spirit possession and magic are linked together, the second being dependent upon the first. 

The Evil Eye is known to all Muslims and is a major issue for them. It essentially refers to an evil glance or look, which is thought to have a powerful impact upon the person looked upon. Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1192, no. 5427 says, “The effect of the evil eye (al-‘ayn) is real, for if there were anything which could overtake destiny, it would have been (the effect of) the evil eye.” This effect is caused by jinn. 

Exorcism is the term used for the expulsion of evil spirits. The name of Allah may be invoked along with a number of other rituals such as the recitation of formulas, prayers, and the use of various artifacts, charms and amulets, thought to have spiritual power. A popular practice is for the exorcist to recite the Qur’an over a cup of water, which is then drunk by the patient. Beatings are frequently used to drive evil jinn out. 

Exorcism treatments, according to Islamic Law, are divided into prohibited and permitted categories. Prohibited and permitted treatments are those stated to be so by Islamic Law, but whatever measures prove to be of value belong to Allah. 

In Islam there is no official position known as the exorcist, but different tribes and language groups employ various titles, such as ‘amil in India and Pakistan. 

The methodology of exorcism generally involves the following steps: 

  1. The undoing of charms, where the spirit possession was the result of magic. Such charms are weakened or cancelled. Once a charm has been removed the spell is neutralized. 
  2. The possessing spirit is commanded to leave. The exorcist may engage the spirit in conversation. The jinn may be evil or good, Muslim or non-Muslim. Non-Muslim spirits may be converted to Islam. The possessing spirits can be corrected and admonished. 
  1. If a jinn refuses to leave, curses may be spoken by the exorcist. Offending jinn can be scolded, threatened, and “Allah’s curse” may be used against it. 
  2. Recitations from the Qur’an may be used for physical healing as well as driving out jinn. Such authority is found in Qur’an 17:82 and 10:57. 
  3. Ayah al-Kursi means “Verse of the Footstool” (Qur’an 2:255), which the Prophet said was the greatest verse in the Qur’an as it relates to humans. This verse is said to have power when it is read over a spirit-possessed person. 
  4. Surah al-Baqarah is the second chapter in the Qur’an, also known as “The Cow.” In Sahih Muslim, vol. 2, p. 337, no. 1707, Muhammad is reported to have said, “The devil flees from a house in which Surah al-Baqarah is read.” There are 286 verses in that chapter, the longest in the Qur’an. 
  5. The Basmalah is a term that means, “In the name of Allah” or “God the Merciful, the Compassionate.” This is spoken often by Muslims and is a kind of prayer or incantation. When spoken it is said to weaken or disarm Satan and the jinn. 
  6. Ta’awwudh is a word that means taking refuge or protection from Satan in Allah (Qur’an 41:36 and 23:97–98). It is powerful to ward off evil jinn and Satan. If a person remembers Allah when entering a house and while eating, then devils will not be welcome. 
  7. Adhan and iqamah are both calls to prayer and are said to have the ability to drive away demons. 
  8. Prophetic Prayers, found in various hadith, can cure illnesses and ward off jinn. 
  9. Natural medicines such as dates may be used to ward off physical trouble caused by jinn. A bath can protect against the evil eye (Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1192, no. 5427). 
  10. Beating can be used when all else fails. It is thought that only the jinn experience the pain inflicted on the possessed person. The pain causes the jinn to depart. 

Chapter Three: “Modern Muslim Exorcist” 

Methods of Exorcism 

A number of exorcists from the following seven countries were interviewed to determine the methods they used in exorcisms. 

Egypt: Recitation of the Qur’an; Crushed lotus leaves in water and Qur’an read over it then drunk; drinking and bathing; communication with jinn; command to leave; Adhan called in right ear and Uqamah in the left ear; Qur’an read over water and olive oil, water then drunk and oil rubbed on body. 

Saudi Arabia: Qur’an recited; grasping the neck; beating; Qur’an read over olive oil and water, oil rubbed and water drunk; string tied around finger and toes followed by beating; communication with jinn; command to leave; jinn bound with an oath to leave; blowing; slapping. 

Pakistan: Scented oil poured on cotton and Qur’an read over it and given to smell; Qur’an verses recited in the patient’s ear; patient shaken; a lock of hair of the patient’s wrapped around the finger of the exorcist; beating; Amulets with Qur’anic verses tied around patient’s arm; Qur’an read over water and drunk; Nails with Qur’anic verses read over them hammered in the four corners of the patient’s house; communication with jinn; jinn scolded and commanded to leave; incantation before lighting lamps and blowing over lamps causes jinn to leave patient, enter lamp and be burned; Qur’an recited over oil and poured in patient’s ear; knot tied in patient’s hair to imprison the jinn; bound with oath to leave; Patient tied; Qur’an recited; amulet put around patient’s neck or right arm; charm burnt and smoke inhaled. 

India: Patient recites over Qur’an; Qur’an recited over water then drunk and bathed with; Qur’an recited over patient; blowing; patient tied down, talismans made of lines, numerology and knowledge of names; charms written in saffron ink on plate, washed with milk and drunk; amulets with Qur’anic verses given to patient; communication with jinn; a lock of hair grabbed to arrest the jinn; knot tied in patient’s hair; prayers; amulet worn around neck for seven days. 

Trinidad: Qur’an recited over water and drunk; Qur’an recited and blown in patient’s face; supplications; prayers; command to leave; mustard oil put in patient’s right palm and Qur’an recited over patient with blowing; mustard oil placed in patient’s ear and sealed; nostrils pinched closed and palm with mustard oil held in front of mouth; patient’s limbs massaged and pressed to determine location of jinn; communication with jinn; jinn driven upward to head and hair; tied lock of hair cut off; beating. 

Bahrain: Patient faces Mecca, and line is drawn in front of him and another drawn around him, along with supplications; Qur’anic verses are recited; light beating; communication with jinn; command to leave. 

Sudan: Exorcist touches aching body part with hand; Qur’anic verses recited; point of pain blown upon; administered only at sunrise or sunset; Qur’anic verses written on plate or bowl, then washed with water, patient drinks water and water rubbed over body; Qur’an verses or their numerical equivalent written on paper and burned while patient inhales the fumes; amulets with Qur’anic verses written on are tied to patient’s ankle, waist, or neck; beating; fasting from meat and dairy products.

General notes: 

Other means of treatment are the following: the patient made unconscious by depressing the jugular veins, supposing the jinn will expose itself thereby; the jinn may be arrested by tying knots in a patient’s hair, the patient’s fingers and toes may be tied to arrest the jinn; amulets with Qur’anic verses written on them may be used; other occult sciences may also be employed. 

Most of those requesting exorcism are women. The jinn may be Muslim or non-Muslim. Exorcists attempt to convert non-Muslim jinn. In India and Pakistan there are few real cases of exorcism. Most are possessed by a single jinn. These jinn may be male or female. 

Signs of possession are the following: change of personality; physical changes; mental changes; spiritual changes. In this last category is included strong reactions to the Qur’an and/or to the adhan (the call to prayer), reaction to anything to do with the Qur’an as water drunk which the Qur’an has been recited over; abandonment of religious practices. 

Reasons for possession are the following: retaliation for harming the jinn and the patient is then possessed out of revenge; jinn love or lust in that the jinn want to have carnal love relations with the patient; mischief in which evil, non-Muslim jinn possess due to their love of sin; magic where a spell or curse is placed on the patient by other humans. 

Chapter Four: Discussion 

The author states, “Muslims today erroneously attribute the power to expel jinn to the exorcist himself, rather than the mercy of Allah, which is available to any believer” (p. 195). 

The chief and most effective element in Islamic exorcism is the use of the Qur’an. Dr. Philips writes, “Since the time of the Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) exorcism by Qur’anic recitation became an indisputable part of canonical prophetic tradition (the Sunnah)” (p. 196). He continues, “The practice of blowing over the demonically possessed patients or on the location where the patient complains of pain is unanimously applied by modern exorcists throughout the Muslim world at different points during their exorcising” (p. 196). 

The Qur’an is seen as a magical book, especially in regard to exorcism. This much is made plain in the description of the methods used by Muslim exorcists. An example is the reading over cups of water and/or olive oil, which apparently magically infuses the Qur’an into the liquids, then when drunk expels jinn. Dr. Philips admits that neither Muhammad nor his companions used such a means for exorcism, but such treatment did arise in the Muslim community at a later time. And this practice was based upon Qur’an 17:82 and 10:57, in addition to passages in the Sunnah. He is clear that the use of amulets and talismans is a deviation from standard Islamic practices. The use of occult sciences and numerology is an even greater deviation. As to beating, the opinion is mixed, and Dr. Philips mentions that some patients died as a result of a beating. 

The author states that the methodology of exorcism has changed little over the past fourteen centuries, and that Islam does not have persons cast in the role of exorcists (p. 205). 

Dr. Philips says, “much of the theory and practice of exorcism in Islam agrees with that of Christianity” (p. 204). It is clear that Muslim exorcists are not to employ any techniques that would involve shirk, which would be the association of any other deity with Allah. 

On this point, however, we must disagree, as we have shown in two books on the subject and after decades of active engagement with the actual and literal casting out of demons that only Jesus and those who act in his name actually cast out demons. 

Muslims and Christians both authenticate demon possession and the expelling of demons. The Muslims do so essentially in the name of Allah. Casting out demons in the name of Jesus, however, while proving demon possession, is far different from exorcism in the name of Allah. It is evident that the exorcists from the various countries, whose methodologies are presented in chapter three, rarely, if ever, commanded jinn to leave “in the name of Allah.” Other magical means were used. 

The issue of the effectiveness of Christian deliverance ministry, which employs no magical elements, is problematic for Dr. Philips, who readily admits the following: 

The question which remains to be answered regarding the Islamic view of exorcism is, “How does Islam explain successful exorcisms performed by Christians over the centuries, when it considers Christianity to be a false religion” (p. 210). 

Dr. Philips’ reasoning, and that of other Muslims who consider the issue, is that casting out of demons by Christians “in the name of Jesus” works because jinn react upon the employment of shirk, which the jinn regard as evil and so are motivated to leave the possessed person, but he also confusingly asserts that Christians cast out demons “in the name of God” and not in the name of Jesus, which would be effective. He is aware that Christian exorcism, preferably called deliverance ministry and fashioned after what is seen in the New Testament, is effectual, but only because of shirk. 

Dr. Philips asserts that those who attempt to exorcize demons in the name of Jesus or in the name of Muhammad are in the same category of error as any of the pagan religionists, which he contends is mere sorcery. And when demons do leave, or appear to leave, it reinforces the notion that there is power in such incantations.

Consequently, the jinn leave the diabolically possessed during Christian and pagan exorcisms by their own free will, having accomplished their malevolent goal of misguiding mankind as promised by Satan in the Qur’an.4 

4 Quoted from page 211.

Then Qur’an 7:16–17; 15:39; and 38:82 are quoted as proof. 

A final remark 

Generally, Christians do not consider saying “in the name of Jesus” to be a magical phrase or spell or incantation. We have been part of dozens of situations where demons were cast out without the words, “in the name of Jesus” even being spoken. The phrase simply means that Jesus has defeated Satan and the demonic kingdom by means of His death, burial, resurrection, ascension, and being seated at the right hand of the Father in heaven. It is that Jesus has defeated all that belongs to Satan and the jinn. “The reason the son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil” (1 John 3:8). And this Muslims simply cannot accept. 

There are many points where Islam and Christianity connect, and exorcism (deliverance) is one of them. Perhaps it is one of the most significant connectors. Dr. Philips’ book makes abundantly and sadly clear that Islam has no real way of dealing with the demonic kingdom except by various incantations, prayers, and rituals, which seem not to be effective. Indeed, the average Muslim is at the mercy of a most vicious foe. Combating magic with magic is deceptive, ineffectual, and dangerous. 

It is in the realm of spiritual warfare where Bible-based Christians will be able to connect with Muslims and share the love of God with them. Certainly, Jesus Christ is the only One who casts out demons, and this is one ministry Christians will be able to bring to Muslim friends. 

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